Changeset 829


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Timestamp:
Oct 7, 2006, 7:59:05 PM (15 years ago)
Author:
Александър Шопов
Message:

Най-накрая - валиден DocBook? 4.2

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1 edited

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  • non-gtk/emoglen/anarchism.bg.xml

    r827 r829  
    3535
    3636
    37 <ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_8/moglen/index.html#author"><!-- <img src="anarchism_files/moglen.gif" alt="Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of Copyright" border="0">--> </ulink>
     37<para><ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_8/moglen/index.html#author"><!-- <img src="anarchism_files/moglen.gif" alt="Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of Copyright" border="0">--> </ulink></para>
    3838
    3939<para><blockquote> <para>The spread of the Linux operating system
     
    4444system.</para></blockquote> </para>
    4545
    46 <!-- Трябва да се генерира автоматично
     46<!-- Should be automatically generated
    4747<h2>Contents</h2>
    4848
     
    485485enlighten.</para>
    486486
     487<section>
    487488<title>How We Created the Microbrain Mess</title>
    488489
     
    894895
    895896</section>
     897</section>
    896898<!--<para><img src="anarchism_files/quad.gif"></para><a name="m3"></a>-->
    897 
     899<section>
    898900<title>III. Anarchism as a Mode of Production</title>
    899901 
     
    947949non-propertarian theory of the digital society?</para>
    948950
    949 <!-- </section> -->
     951</section>
    950952<section>
    951953
     
    988990it:</para>
    989991
    990 <blockquote>When we speak of free software, we are referring to
     992<blockquote><para>When we speak of free software, we are referring to
    991993freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make
    992994sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software
     
    994996code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or
    995997use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do
    996 these things.</blockquote>
    997 
    998 <blockquote>To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that
     998these things.</para>
     999
     1000<para>To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that
    9991001forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the
    10001002rights.  These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for
    10011003you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify
    1002 it.</blockquote>
    1003 
    1004 <blockquote>For example, if you distribute copies of such a program,
     1004it.</para>
     1005
     1006<para>For example, if you distribute copies of such a program,
    10051007whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the
    10061008rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or
    10071009can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they
    1008 know their rights.</blockquote>
     1010know their rights.</para>
    10091011
    10101012<para>Many variants of this basic free software idea have been
     
    10141016in pertinent part:</para>
    10151017
    1016 <blockquote>You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any
     1018<para>You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any
    10171019portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
    10181020distribute such modifications or work ..., provided that you also meet
    1019 all of these conditions: </blockquote>
    1020 
    1021 <blockquote>...</blockquote>
    1022 
    1023 <blockquote>b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish,
     1021all of these conditions: </para>
     1022
     1023<para>...</para>
     1024
     1025<para>b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish,
    10241026that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or
    10251027any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
    1026 parties under the terms of this License.</blockquote>
     1028parties under the terms of this License.</para></blockquote>
    10271029
    10281030<para>Section 2(b) of the GPL is sometimes called "restrictive," but
     
    10431045memorandum, Vinod Vallopillil, put it:</para>
    10441046
    1045 <blockquote>The GPL and its aversion to code forking reassures
     1047<blockquote><para>The GPL and its aversion to code forking reassures
    10461048customers that they aren't riding an evolutionary `dead-end' by
    1047 subscribing to a particular commercial version of Linux.</blockquote>
    1048 
    1049 <blockquote>The "evolutionary dead-end" is the core of the software
     1049subscribing to a particular commercial version of Linux.</para>
     1050
     1051<para>The "evolutionary dead-end" is the core of the software
    10501052FUD argument <footnote> <para>25. <ulink
    10511053url="http://www.opensource.org/halloween/halloween1.html">V. Vallopillil,
    10521054Open Source Software: A (New?) Development Methodology.</ulink></para>
    1053 </footnote> .</blockquote>
     1055</footnote> .</para></blockquote>
    10541056
    10551057<para>Translated out of Microspeak, this means that the strategy by
     
    11971199Microsoft Writing Style:</para>
    11981200
    1199 <blockquote>A small number of Web sites and FAQs later, I found an FTP
     1201<blockquote><para>A small number of Web sites and FAQs later, I found an FTP
    12001202site with a Linux DHCP client. The DHCP client was developed by an
    12011203engineer employed by Fore Systems (as evidenced by his e-mail address;
     
    12031205second set of documentation/manuals was written for the DHCP client by
    12041206a hacker in <emphasis>Hungary</emphasis> which provided relatively simple
    1205 instructions on how to install/load the client.</blockquote>
    1206 
    1207 <blockquote>I downloaded &amp; uncompressed the client and typed two
    1208 simple commands:</blockquote>
    1209 
    1210 <blockquote>Make - compiles the client binaries</blockquote>
    1211 
    1212 <blockquote>Make Install -installed the binaries as a Linux Daemon</blockquote>
    1213 
    1214 <blockquote>Typing "DHCPCD" (for DHCP Client Daemon) on the command
     1207instructions on how to install/load the client.</para>
     1208
     1209<para>I downloaded &amp; uncompressed the client and typed two
     1210simple commands:</para>
     1211
     1212<para>Make - compiles the client binaries</para>
     1213
     1214<para>Make Install -installed the binaries as a Linux Daemon</para>
     1215
     1216<para>Typing "DHCPCD" (for DHCP Client Daemon) on the command
    12151217line triggered the DHCP discovery process and voila, I had IP
    1216 networking running.  </blockquote>
    1217 
    1218 <blockquote>Since I had just downloaded the DHCP client code, on an
     1218networking running.  </para>
     1219
     1220<para>Since I had just downloaded the DHCP client code, on an
    12191221impulse I played around a bit. Although the client wasn't as
    12201222extensible as the DHCP client we are shipping in NT5 (for example, it
    12211223won't query for arbitrary options &amp; store results), it was obvious
    12221224how I could write the additional code to implement this functionality.
    1223 The full client consisted of about 2,600 lines of code.</blockquote>
    1224 
    1225 <blockquote>One example of esoteric, extended functionality that was
     1225The full client consisted of about 2,600 lines of code.</para>
     1226
     1227<para>One example of esoteric, extended functionality that was
    12261228clearly patched in by a third party was a set of routines to that
    12271229would pad the DHCP request with host-specific strings required by
    1228 Cable Modem / ADSL sites.</blockquote>
    1229 
    1230 <blockquote>A few other steps were required to configure the DHCP
     1230Cable Modem / ADSL sites.</para>
     1231
     1232<para>A few other steps were required to configure the DHCP
    12311233client to auto-start and auto-configure my Ethernet interface on boot
    12321234but these were documented in the client code and in the DHCP
    1233 documentation from the Hungarian developer.</blockquote>
    1234 
    1235 <blockquote>I'm a poorly skilled UNIX programmer but it was
     1235documentation from the Hungarian developer.</para>
     1236
     1237<para>I'm a poorly skilled UNIX programmer but it was
    12361238immediately obvious to me how to incrementally extend the DHCP client
    1237 code (the feeling was exhilarating and addictive).</blockquote>
    1238 
    1239 <blockquote>Additionally, due directly to GPL + having the full
    1240 development environment in front of me, I was in a position where I
    1241 could write up my changes and e-mail them out within a couple of hours
    1242 (in contrast to how things like this would get done in NT). Engaging
    1243 in that process would have prepared me for a larger, more ambitious
    1244 Linux project in the future <footnote><para>29. Vinod Vallopillil,
    1245 <ulink url="http://www.opensource.org/halloween/halloween2.html">Linux
    1246 OS Competitive Analysis (Halloween II).</ulink> Note Vallopillil's
     1239code (the feeling was exhilarating and addictive).</para>
     1240
     1241<para>Additionally, due directly to GPL + having the full development
     1242environment in front of me, I was in a position where I could write up
     1243my changes and e-mail them out within a couple of hours (in contrast
     1244to how things like this would get done in NT). Engaging in that
     1245process would have prepared me for a larger, more ambitious Linux
     1246project in the future <footnote><para>29. Vinod Vallopillil, <ulink
     1247url="http://www.opensource.org/halloween/halloween2.html">Linux OS
     1248Competitive Analysis (Halloween II).</ulink> Note Vallopillil's
    12471249surprise that a program written in California had been subsequently
    1248 documented by a programmer in Hungary.</para> </footnote>
    1249 .</blockquote>
     1250documented by a programmer in Hungary.</para>
     1251</footnote>.</para></blockquote>
    12501252
    12511253<para>"The feeling was exhilarating and addictive." Stop the presses:
     
    13231325
    13241326<para>
    1325 What happened to music is also happening to news. The wire services, as
    1326 any U.S. law student learns even before taking the near-obligatory
    1327 course in Copyright for Droids, have a protectible property interest in
    1328 their expression of the news, even if not in the facts the news reports
    1329 
    1330 
    1331 <para>31. International News Service v. Associated
    1332 Press, 248
    1333 U.S. 215 (1918). With regard to the actual terse, purely functional
    1334 expressions of breaking news actually at stake in the jostling among
    1335 wire services, this was always a distinction only a droid could love.</para>
    1336 
    1337 
    1338 .
    1339 So why are they now giving all their output away? Because in the world
    1340 of the Net, most news is commodity news. And the original
    1341 advantage of the news gatherers, that they were internally connected in
    1342 ways others were not when communications were expensive, is gone. Now
    1343 what matters is collecting eyeballs to deliver to advertisers. It isn't
    1344 the wire services that have the advantage in covering Kosovo, that's
    1345 for sure. Much less those paragons of "intellectual" property, their
    1346 television lordships. They, with their overpaid pretty people and their
    1347 massive technical infrastructure, are about the only organizations in
    1348 the world that can't afford to be everywhere all the time. And then
    1349 they have to limit themselves to ninety seconds a story, or the eyeball
     1327What happened to music is also happening to news. The wire services,
     1328as any U.S. law student learns even before taking the near-obligatory
     1329course in Copyright for Droids, have a protectible property interest
     1330in their expression of the news, even if not in the facts the news
     1331reports <footnote><para>31. International News Service v. Associated
     1332Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918). With regard to the actual terse, purely
     1333functional expressions of breaking news actually at stake in the
     1334jostling among wire services, this was always a distinction only a
     1335droid could love.</para></footnote>.  So why are they now giving all
     1336their output away? Because in the world of the Net, most news is
     1337commodity news. And the original advantage of the news gatherers, that
     1338they were internally connected in ways others were not when
     1339communications were expensive, is gone. Now what matters is collecting
     1340eyeballs to deliver to advertisers. It isn't the wire services that
     1341have the advantage in covering Kosovo, that's for sure. Much less
     1342those paragons of "intellectual" property, their television
     1343lordships. They, with their overpaid pretty people and their massive
     1344technical infrastructure, are about the only organizations in the
     1345world that can't afford to be everywhere all the time. And then they
     1346have to limit themselves to ninety seconds a story, or the eyeball
    13501347hunters will go somewhere else. So who makes better news, the
    1351 propertarians or the anarchists? We shall soon see.</para>
     1348propertarians or the anarchists?  We shall soon see.</para>
    13521349
    13531350<para>Oscar Wilde says somewhere that the problem with socialism is
     
    14031400E-mail: <ulink url="mailto:moglen@columbia.edu">Mail: moglen@columbia.edu</ulink></para>
    14041401
    1405 <title>Acknowledgments</title>
     1402<para>Acknowledgments</para>
    14061403
    14071404<para>This paper was prepared for delivery at the Buchmann
     
    14141411
    14151412<blockquote>
    1416 
    1417 <ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_8/index.html"><!--<img src="anarchism_files/contents.gif" alt="Contents" align="bottom" border="0">--></ulink>
    1418 
     1413<para>
     1414<ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_8/index.html"><!--<img src="anarchism_files/contents.gif" alt="Contents" align="bottom" border="0">--></ulink> </para>
     1415<para>
    14191416<ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/issues/index.html"><!--<img src="anarchism_files/index.gif" alt="Index" border="0">--></ulink>
    1420 
     1417</para>
    14211418<para>Copyright <ulink url="http://firstmonday.org/copy.html">©</ulink> 1999, First Monday</para></blockquote>
    14221419
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