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2<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
3    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
4<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
5
6<head>
7<title>Правото да четеш - Проектът GNU - Фондация за свободен софтуер (FSF)</title>
8<meta http-equiv="content-type" content='text/html; charset=utf-8' />
9<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/gnu.css" />
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19<body>
20
21<p><a href="#translations">Други преводи</a> на тази страница</p>
22
23<h3>Правото да четеш</h3>
24<p>
25от <a href="http://www.stallman.org/"><strong>Ричард Столмън</strong></a></p>
26
27<p>
28<a href="/graphics/philosophicalgnu.html"><img src="/graphics/philosophical-gnu-sm.jpg"
29        alt=" [изображение на философски настроеното Гну] "
30        width="160" height="200" /></a>
31</p>
32
33<hr />
34
35<h4>Съдържние</h4>
36<ul>
37        <li><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#AuthorsNote"
38                id="TOCAuthorsNote">Бележка на автора</a></li>
39        <li><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#References"
40                id="TOCReferences">Препратки</a></li>
41        <li><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#OtherTexts"
42                id="TOCOtherTexts">Други текстове за четене</a></li>
43</ul>
44
45<hr />
46
47<p>
48<em>Тази статия се публикува за първи път във февруарския брой на
49списанието <strong>Communications of the ACM</strong> (том 40, брой
502).</em></p>
51
52<blockquote><p>
53             (от <quote>Пътят към Тихо</quote> - сборник статии за
54              причините за Лунарната революция, публикуван в град
55              Луна през 2096 г.)
56</p></blockquote>
57
58<p>
59За Дан Халбърт пътят към Тихо започна в университета, когато Лиса Ленц
60го помоли да й услужи с компютъра си.  Нейният се бе счупил и ако не
61заемеше друг, щеше да се провали с проекта си за семестъра.  Нямаше
62никой друг, който тя да се осмели да помоли за това, освен Дан.</p>
63
64<p>
65Това постави голяма дилема пред Дан.  Той трябваше да й помогне, но
66ако й дадеше компютъра, тя можеше да прочете книгите му.  Да оставим
67настрана факта, че да оставиш някой да ти чете книгите, значеше че
68можеха да те вкарат в затвора за дълги години -- самата идея да й
69услужи го шокира отначало.  Както всички други и него му бяха
70повтаряли още от начлното училище, че да споделяш книги е нещо
71отвратително и лошо -- нещо, което правят само пиратите.</p>
72
73<p>
74Нямаше и голям шанс да не бъде хванат от АЗС -- Агенцията за защита на
75софтуера.  В лекциите по програмиране Дан научи, че всяка книга има
76датчик, който докладва кога, къде и от кого е била четена на
77Учреждението за централно лицензиране.  (Те използвха тази информация,
78за да хващат четящите пирати, но и също така извличаха данни за
79личните интереси на хората и ги продаваха на търговците).  Следващия
80път като влезеше в мрежат и Централното лицензиране щеше да разбере, а
81той като собственик на компютъра щеше да получи най-тежкото наказние,
82че не е направил всичко по силите му да предотврати
83престъплението.</p>
84
85<p>
86Естествено, не беше сигурно, че Лиса искаше да чете от книгите му.  Тя
87можеше просто да иска компютъра, за да си напише проекта.  Дан обаче
88знаеше, че тя идваше от семейство от средната класа и едва съумяваше
89да си плати училищните такси, да не говорим за вноските за четене.  Да
90чете от неговите книги може би беше единствения начин да завърши.  Той
91много добре рзбираше положението й -- на него му се бе наложило да
92вземе кредит, за да може да плати за всички научни статии, които
93четеше.  (10% от таксите за статиите отиваха за изследователите, които
94пишеха статиите.  Понеже Дан също се стремеше към академична кариера,
95той се надяваше, неговите собствени изследвания да бъдат често цитирани
96и така евентуално да съумее да плати заема си.)</p>
97
98<p>
99По-късно Дан щеше да научи, че е имало време, когто всеки е можел да
100отиде в библиотека и да чете статии от нучни журнали и даже книги без
101да му се налага да плаща.  Имало е независими учени, които са чели
102хиляди страници, без да им се е налагало да имат държавни субсидии.
103Но през 90-те години на 20 век But in the 1990s, both commercial
104and nonprofit journal publishers had begun charging fees for access.
105By 2047, libraries offering free public access to scholarly literature
106were a dim memory.</p>
107
108<p>
109Естестено имаше начини да заобиколиш АЗС и Централното лицензиране, но
110те бяха незаконни.  Дан имаше състудент в лекциите по прогрмиране --
111Франк Мартучи, който се бе сдобил с незаконен инструмент за изчистване
112на грешки -- дебъгер и го използваше да изключва код за следене на
113авторските права, когато четеше.  Той беше казал на прекалено мноого
114приятели за това и един от тях го редаде на АЗС за награда
115(студентите, които са затънали в дългове лесно се изкушават да станат
116предатели).  През 2047г. Франк бе в затвора, не заради пиратско
117четене, а заради притежанието на дебъгер.</p>
118
119<p>
120По-късно Дан щеше да научи, че е имало време, когато всеки е можел да
121притежав инструменти за изчистване на грешки.  Дори е имало свободни и
122безплатни подобни инструменти, които са били достъпни на CD или за
123изтегляне по мрежата.  Някои от обикновените потребители били почнали
124да ги зиползват, за да деактивират кода за наблюдение на авторски
125права и най-накрая един съдия решил, че това на рактика се е оказала
126оснавната им употреба.  Това означавало, че били незаконни, а
127разработчиците на дебъгери били пратени в затвора.</p>
128
129<p>
130Прогрмистите продължавали д се нуждаят от инструменти за изчистване на
131грешки, което било в ред н нещата, но производителите на дебъгери през
1322047г. разпространявали ограничен борй копия, всяко с
133идентификационенн номер и то само на официално лицензираните и
134официално заклети програмисти.  Дебъгерът, който използваха в чсовете
135на Дан бе поставен зд специална защитна стена, за да бъде исползван
136единствено и само за упражненията в университета.</p>
137
138<p>
139It was also possible to bypass the copyright monitors by installing a
140modified system kernel.  Dan would eventually find out about the free
141kernels, even entire free operating systems, that had existed around
142the turn of the century.  But not only were they illegal, like
143debuggers--you could not install one if you had one, without knowing
144your computer's root password.  And neither the FBI nor Microsoft
145Support would tell you that.</p>
146
147<p>
148Dan concluded that he couldn't simply lend Lissa his computer.  But he
149couldn't refuse to help her, because he loved her.  Every chance to
150speak with her filled him with delight.  And that she chose him to ask
151for help, that could mean she loved him too.</p>
152
153<p>
154Dan resolved the dilemma by doing something even more unthinkable--he
155lent her the computer, and told her his password.  This way, if Lissa
156read his books, Central Licensing would think he was reading them.  It
157was still a crime, but the SPA would not automatically find out about
158it.  They would only find out if Lissa reported him.</p>
159
160<p>
161Of course, if the school ever found out that he had given Lissa his
162own password, it would be curtains for both of them as students,
163regardless of what she had used it for.  School policy was that any
164interference with their means of monitoring students' computer use was
165grounds for disciplinary action.  It didn't matter whether you did
166anything harmful--the offense was making it hard for the
167administrators to check on you.  They assumed this meant you were
168doing something else forbidden, and they did not need to know what it
169was.</p>
170
171<p>
172Students were not usually expelled for this--not directly.  Instead
173they were banned from the school computer systems, and would
174inevitably fail all their classes.</p>
175
176<p>
177Later, Dan would learn that this kind of university policy started
178only in the 1980s, when university students in large numbers began
179using computers.  Previously, universities maintained a different
180approach to student discipline; they punished activities that were
181harmful, not those that merely raised suspicion.</p>
182
183<p>
184Lissa did not report Dan to the SPA.  His decision to help her led to
185their marriage, and also led them to question what they had been
186taught about piracy as children.  The couple began reading about the
187history of copyright, about the Soviet Union and its restrictions on
188copying, and even the original United States Constitution.  They moved
189to Luna, where they found others who had likewise gravitated away from
190the long arm of the SPA.  When the Tycho Uprising began in 2062, the
191universal right to read soon became one of its central aims.</p>
192
193
194<h4><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#TOCAuthorsNote"
195       id="AuthorsNote">Бележка на автора</a></h4>
196
197<p>This note was updated in 2002.</p>
198
199<p>
200The right to read is a battle being fought today.  Although it may
201take 50 years for our present way of life to fade into obscurity, most
202of the specific laws and practices described above have already been
203proposed; many have been enacted into law in the US and elsewhere.  In
204the US, the 1998 Digital Millenium Copyright Act established the legal
205basis to restrict the reading and lending of computerized books (and
206other data too).  The European Union imposed similar restrictions in a
2072001 copyright directive.</p>
208
209<p>
210Until recently, there was one exception: the idea that the FBI and
211Microsoft will keep the root passwords for personal computers, and not
212let you have them, was not proposed until 2002.  It is called "trusted
213computing" or "palladium".</p>
214
215<p>
216In 2001, Disney-funded Senator Hollings proposed a bill called the
217SSSCA that would require every new computer to have mandatory
218copy-restriction facilities that the user cannot bypass.  Following
219the Clipper chip and similar US government key-escrow proposals, this
220shows a long-term trend: computer systems are increasingly set up to
221give absentees with clout control over the people actually using the
222computer system.  The SSSCA has since been renamed to the CBDTPA
223(think of it as the "Consume But Don't Try Programming Act").</p>
224
225<p>
226In 2001 the US began attempting to use the proposed Free Trade Area of
227the Americas treaty to impose the same rules on all the countries in
228the Western Hemisphere.  The FTAA is one of the so-called "free trade"
229treaties, actually designed to give business increased power over
230democratic governments; imposing laws like the DMCA is typical of this
231spirit.  The <a href="http://www.eff.org">Electronic Frontier
232Foundation</a> asks people to explain to the other governments why
233they should oppose this plan.</p>
234
235<p>
236The SPA, which actually stands for Software Publisher's Association,
237has been replaced in this police-like role by the BSA or Business
238Software Alliance.  It is not, today, an official police force;
239unofficially, it acts like one.  Using methods reminiscent of the
240erstwhile Soviet Union, it invites people to inform on their coworkers
241and friends.  A BSA terror campaign in Argentina in 2001 made veiled
242threats that people sharing software would be raped in prison.</p>
243
244<p>
245When this story was written, the SPA was threatening small
246Internet service providers, demanding they permit the SPA to monitor
247all users.  Most ISPs surrender when threatened, because they cannot
248afford to fight back in court.  (Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 1 Oct
24996, D3.)  At least one ISP, Community ConneXion in Oakland CA, refused
250the demand and was actually sued.  The SPA later dropped the suit,
251but obtained the DMCA which gave them the power they sought.</p>
252
253<p>
254The university security policies described above are not imaginary.
255For example, a computer at one Chicago-area university prints this
256message when you log in (quotation marks are in the original):</p>
257
258<blockquote><p>
259"This system is for the use of authorized users only.  Individuals using
260this computer system without authority or in the excess of their authority
261are subject to having all their activities on this system monitored and
262recorded by system personnel.  In the course of monitoring individuals
263improperly using this system or in the course of system maintenance, the
264activities of authorized user may also be monitored.  Anyone using this
265system expressly consents to such monitoring and is advised that if such
266monitoring reveals possible evidence of illegal activity or violation of
267University regulations system personnel may provide the evidence of such
268monitoring to University authorities and/or law enforcement officials."
269</p></blockquote>
270
271<p>
272This is an interesting approach to the Fourth Amendment: pressure most
273everyone to agree, in advance, to waive their rights under it.</p>
274
275<hr />
276
277<h4><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#TOCReferences"
278       id="References">Препратки</a></h4>
279
280<ul>
281  <li>The administration's "White Paper": Information Infrastructure Task
282       Force, Intellectual Property and the National Information
283       Infrastructure: The Report of the Working Group on Intellectual
284       Property Rights (1995).</li>
285       
286  <li><a href="http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.01/white.paper_pr.html">An
287       explanation of the White Paper:
288       The Copyright Grab</a>, Pamela Samuelson, Wired, Jan. 1996</li>
289
290  <li><a href="http://www.law.duke.edu/boylesite/sold_out.htm">Sold Out</a>,
291       James Boyle, New York Times, 31 March 1996</li>
292
293  <li>Public Data or Private Data, Washington Post, 4 Nov 1996. We used to have a link to this, but Washinton Post has decided to start charging users who wishes to read articles on the web site and therefore we have decided to remove the link.</li>
294
295  <li><a href="http://www.public-domain.org/">Union for the Public
296       Domain</a>--an organization which aims to resist and reverse
297       the overextension of copyright and patent powers.</li>
298</ul>
299
300<hr />
301<h4>This essay is published in <a href="/doc/book13.html"><cite>Free Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
302M. Stallman</cite></a>.</h4>
303
304<h4><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#TOCOtherTexts"
305        id="OtherTexts">Други текстове за четене</a></h4>
306
307<ul>
308        <li><a href="/philosophy/philosophy.html">Philosophy of the GNU Project</a></li>
309        <li><a href="http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/opinion/story/0,10801,49358,00.html" id="COPYPROCTECTION">Copy Protection: Just Say No</a> 
310                Published in Computer World.</li>
311</ul>
312
313<hr />
314
315<p>
316The <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html#AuthorsNote">author's
317note</a> talks about the battle for the right to read and electronic
318surveillance.  The battle is beginning now; here are links to two
319articles about technologies now being
320developed to deny you the right to read.</p>
321<ul>
322<li><a href="http://www.zdnet.com/zdnn/stories/news/0,4586,2324939,00.html">Electronic
323     Publishing:</a> An article about distribution of books in
324     electronic form, and copyright issues affecting the right to read a copy.</li>
325<li><a href="http://channels.microsoft.com/presspass/press/1999/Aug99/SeyboldPR.asp">Books
326     inside Computers:</a> Software to control who can read
327     books and documents on a PC.</li>
328</ul>
329
330<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
331<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
332<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
333<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
334<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
335
336<div class="copyright">
337<p>
338Return to the <a href="/home.html">GNU Project home page</a>.
339</p>
340
341<p>
342Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
343<a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"><em>gnu@gnu.org</em></a>.
344There are also <a href="/home.html#ContactInfo">other ways to contact</a> 
345the FSF.
346<br />
347Please send broken links and other corrections (or suggestions) to
348<a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"><em>webmasters@gnu.org</em></a>.
349</p>
350
351<p>
352Please see the
353<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
354README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
355translations of this article.
356</p>
357
358<p>
359Copyright 1996 Richard Stallman
360<br />
361Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is
362permitted in any medium without royalty provided this notice is
363preserved.
364</p>
365
366<p>
367Последно обновяване:
368<!-- timestamp start -->
369$Date: 2006/07/06 16:53:21 $ $Author: alex_muntada $
370<!-- timestamp end -->
371</p>
372</div>
373
374<div class="translations">
375<p><a id="translations"></a>
376<b>Преводи на тази страница</b>:<br />
377
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390
391[
392<!-- Czech --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.cs.html">cs</a> |
393<!-- German --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.de.html">de</a> |
394<!-- English --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">en</a> |
395<!-- Spanish --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.es.html">es</a> |
396<!-- French --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.fr.html">fr</a> |
397<!-- Hebrew --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.he.html">he</a> |
398<!-- Japanese --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.ja.html">ja</a> |
399<!-- Korean --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.ko.html">ko</a> |
400<!-- Hungarian --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.hu.html">hu</a> |
401<!-- Polish --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.pl.html">pl</a> |
402<!-- Portuguese --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.pt.html">pt</a> |
403<!-- Russian --> <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.ru.html">ru</a> |
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406]
407</p>
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409
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